Conventions and Abbreviations

Editorial Conventions

Comments and other editorial matter inserted into quotations, or by the editors of Tengwestië into articles, are enclosed in square brackets: [].


Bibliographical Abbreviations

The following bibliographical citation abbreviations are used throughout this site. Citations are to the standard hardcover/trade paperback editions (the links below are to the precise editions used, where still in print), except where otherwise noted.

H The Hobbit
LR The Lord of the Rings N.B.: In articles published prior to Nov. 27, 2005, all references are to this earlier edition
RC The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion
R The Road Goes Ever On
TC A Tolkien Compass Now superseded by RC
S The Silmarillion
UT Unfinished Tales
L The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien
MC The Monsters and the Critics
I The Book of Lost Tales, Part One
II The Book of Lost Tales, Part Two
III The Lays of Beleriand
IV The Shaping of Middle-earth
V The Lost Road
VI The Return of the Shadow
VII The Treason of Isengard
VIII The War of the Ring
IX Sauron Defeated
X Morgoth's Ring
XI The War of the Jewels
XII The Peoples of Middle-earth
PE Parma Eldalamberon
VT Vinyar Tengwar
GL The “Gnomish Lexicon”, in PE 11.
QL The “Qenya Lexicon”, in PE 12.
PME The “Poetic and Mythologic Words of Eldarissa”, in PE 12.
Etym. The Etymologies, in V.
A&C The “Addenda and Corrigenda to the Etymologies”, in VT 45 and 46.
OED Oxford English Dictionary

Example citations: “(LR:90)” = The Lord of the Rings p. 90. “(VT43:24)” = Vinyar Tengwar 43, p. 24.

General Abbreviations

Non-bibliographical abbreviations should be used sparingly and only where doing so is not likely to prove ambiguous or not readily interpretable.

§ section
c. circa
cf. refer to
cp. compare
e.g. for example
ed. editor, edited by
esp. especially
etc. et cetera, and so on
f., fol., ff. folio, folios
fn. footnote
i.e. that is
ibid. in the same place
lit. literally
ms., mss., MS., MSS. manuscript, manuscripts
n. note
no. number
op. cit. work cited
p., pp. page, pages
r. recto
sc. namely
q.v. which see
s.v. under the word or entry
v. verso

Language Abbreviations

CE Common Eldarin
CT Common Telerin
Dan. Danian
Dor. Doriathrin
Eld. Eldarin
EN Exilic Noldorin
Engl. English
F.A. First Age
Finn. Finnish
G. Gnomish, Goldogrin
Gk. Greek
Gmc. Germanic
Gn. Gnomish
Gold. Goldogrin
Goth. Gothic
Heb. Hebrew
Hitt. Hittite
Hung. Hungarian
IE Indo-European
Ilk. Ilkorin
L. Lindarin
Lat. Latin
Lith. Lithuanian
ME Middle English
Mod. Modern
MW Middle Welsh
N. Noldorin
Ñ Ñoldorin
OE Old English
OFris. Old Frisian
OHG Old High German
ON Old Noldorin
ONor. Old Norse
Oss. Ossiriandeb
PE Primitive Eldarin
PGmc. Proto-Germanic
PIE Proto-Indo-European
PQ Primitive Quendian
Q. Qenya, Quenya
Qe. Qenya
Qu. Quenya
R. Rohanese
S. Sindarin
S.A. Second Age
Skr. Sanskrit
T. Telerin
T.A. Third Age
V. Valarin
W. Welsh

Linguistics Abbreviations

prefixed to a form indicates that it is a root.
* prefixed to a form indicates that it is a hypothetical, reconstructed form unattested in the historical records.
** prefixed to a form indicates that it is an erroneous, ungrammatical from.
prefixed to a form indicates that it is archaic and/or poetic.
< derived from (historically)
> developed to (historically)
<< changed from (in the manuscript)
>> changed to (in the manuscript)
1, 1st. first person
2, 2nd. second person
3, 3rd. third person
abl. ablative
acc. accusative
act. active
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
aff. affix, affixed
all. allative
aor. aorist
coll. collective
com. common
conj. conjunction
cpd., cpds. compound, compounds
d.o. direct object
dat. dative
dial. dialectal
dim. diminutive
du. dual
f., fem. feminine
fu.t. future tense
gen. genitive
imp. imperative
impers. impersonal
impf. imperfect
inf. infinitive
interj. interjection
instr. instrumental
intr. intransitive
IPA International Phonetic Alphabet
loc. locative
m., masc. masculine
n. noun
n., neut. neuter
nom. nominative
obj. object, objective
p.p., pa.p. past/passive participle
pa.t. past tense
part. partitive
pass. passive
pl. plural
poss. possessive
pr.p. present/active participle
pr.t. present tense
pref. prefix, prefixed
prep. preposition
pret. preterite
prn. pronoun
refl. reflexive
sg. singular
subj. subject, subjective; also subjunctive
suff. suffix, suffixed
tr., trans. transitive
v., vb. verb

Copyright ©2003 Carl F. Hostetter

Quotations from the works of J.R.R. or Christopher Tolkien are the copyright of their publishers and/or the Tolkien Estate, and are used here with their kind permission. The word TOLKIEN is a registered trademark of The J.R.R. Tolkien Estate Limited. The characters and scripts of Tolkien’s invented languages and works in those languages are the copyright of the Tolkien Estate.


First published on November 20th, 2003

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